Cave of the Mounds will continue to follow the guidance of local public health officials to assess the situation as the health and safety of Cave of the Mounds guests and staff is our top priority.
DUE TO CURRENT DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN COVID19 PLAN:
MASKS ARE REQUIRED both inside the cave and inside the buildings at all times. Hand sanitizing stations are installed in all public buildings. Self Guided tours depart frequently into the Cave. Tours are scheduled first come, first served and tickets cannot be reserved in advance. A limited # of tickets per slot are available through 4pm daily. Due to state mandated building capacities inside of the buildings, -typically only Saturdays and Sundays – we recommend dressing for the weather in case you have to wait outside for your tour. Our surface nature trails, gift shop and mining sluice remain open until 5pm daily.
What is a Self-Paced Tour?
Take a self-paced stroll through this geologic wonder. Entries enter regularly every day of the year. Your walk will guide you past a stunning array of colorful crystal formations on paved lighted walkways. Cave of the Mounds is the premier cave in the upper Midwest and the jewel box of America’s major show caves.
INSIDE THE CAVE
The total surveyed length of the Cave (lengths of the caverns, Meanders, and every nook and cranny added together) is 1692 feet. The straight-shot length of the caverns, from the “South End Collapse” to the end of the “Dream River Room” (as the bat flies) is approximately 750 feet. We walk about 1/5 of a mile (about 1100 feet) on the tour.
Distances from floor of Cave to surface:
- South End Collapse 42 feet
- Onyx Ridge 48 feet
- North Cave 57 feet
- North End Collapse 43 feet
- Bypass Tunnel 40 feet
Limestone is a porous rock, so air and water pass through it fairly easily. As the barometric pressure changes outside, air passes through the limestone to compensate for the change, thus either drawing air into the Cave or pushing it out. However, most air circulation is through the blast opening or the shaft.
Bats, coyotes, raccoons, and other trogloxenes that might have used the Cave for shelter would have needed a natural opening to enter and exit through. Before Cave of the Mounds was discovered in 1939, it was a closed system. That means, there were no natural openings from the Cave to the surface above, keeping it hidden for millions of years. Most caves are discovered via a natural opening created by a sinkhole or other natural occurrence, so this unique feature distinguishes Cave of the Mounds from other show caves in Wisconsin.
It takes approximately 100 years for cave onyx to grow 1 centimetre.
Your hair grows faster in 6 hours than our cave does all year!
The holes were started by water dripping onto the new, wet cement; as water has continued to drip in the same spots, these holes have probably been enlarged.
HISTORY OF THE CAVE
Yes, and it has been since the day it was discovered. The Cave is on Brigham Farm, which was founded in 1828 by Ebenezer Brigham, the first european settler in Dane County. When he passed on, he left the property to his great nephew Charles Brigham, Sr. Charles and his family operated the property primarily as a dairy farm, but occasionally leased quarry rights to local contractors, and thus in 1939 the Cave was discovered! In 1988, Cave of the Mounds earned the National Natural Landmark designation, entering into a public-private partnership with the National Park Service. This partnership ensures that the Cave will be managed & protected for future generations as a prime example of Wisconsin’s Natural Heritage.
Cave of the Mounds was accidentally discovered on August 4, 1939. Workers, who were removing high quality limestone from a quarry on the Brigham Farm, blasted into the Cave. The blast tore the face off the quarry and revealed a great underground cavern. All quarrying stopped and never resumed. The dynamite blast revealed a limestone cave more than twenty feet high opening into other rooms and galleries, all containing numerous mineral formations.
The excitement of the discovery brought so many curiosity seekers that the Cave had to be closed in order to preserve it. Soon, lights and wooden walkways were installed. And, in May 1940, Cave of the Mounds was opened to visitors. Millions of visitors later, the Cave’s wooden walkways were replaced with concrete; a large stone building replaced the original entry building; and theatrical lighting has been installed to dramatize the colors and shapes within the Cave. Picnic areas, walking trails, rock gardens, gift shops and a visitor center have all since been developed.
Construction of the tunnels and cement walkways was started prior to 1946 and was finished by 1957. The bypass tunnel was finished in 1948. The present entry building was constructed in 1942.
SCIENCE OF THE CAVE
The mineral calcite is white. Reddish brown colors come from rust deposited by Leptothrixbacteria. Shades of black, purple, and gray come from manganese compounds deposited by Gallionella bacteria.
The water table is roughly 400 feet below the surface. The water table is very slowly lowering as area rivers erode the surface. The local water table is controlled primarily by the Wisconsin River.
Is the cave privately owned?
Yes, and it has been since the day it was discovered. The Cave is on Brigham Farm, which the Brigham family founded in 1828. (Mrs. Rooney is a member of the Brigham family.)
Three methods for finding caves are seismic soundings, resistivity testing, and gravity measurements. However, due to the sensitivity of the equipment, such testing can be extremely expensive. Also, it is very difficult to determine the size of underground cavities using surface testing. Gravity testing has been done around Cave of the Mounds; and more recently seismic soundings were tried above the Song of Norway grounds.